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Comparative pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in healthy and Trichomonas gallinae infected pigeons (Columba livia domestica)
Type Article
trichomoniasis, metronidazole, pigeon, pharmacokinetic, drug resistance
1. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole after intravenous (i.v.) and oral administration to healthy and experimentally Trichomonas gallinae-infected pigeons, and determined the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of metronidazole against T. gallinae. 2. Twelve pigeons which were experimentally infected to T. gallinae and twelve healthy pigeons received metronidazole at the dose of 25 mg/kg by oral or i.v. administration. Serial blood sampling was used for pharmacokinetic analysis. The metronidazole minimum lethal concentration (MLC) and the concentration killing 50% of the trophozoites (LC50) in the culture media were determined. 3. In vitro data showed that the 24 h LC50 and MLC of metronidazole were 0.31 and 25 µg/ml, respectively. In vivo results showed no statistical differences between pharmacokinetics in infected and non-infected pigeons for both routes of administrations. The area under the curve was statistically higher after the i.v. administration in both infected and healthy pigeons. The mean oral bioavailability was similar in the infected (83.8%) and the healthy (81.5%) birds. 4. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in pigeons was not affected by experimentally-induced trichomoniasis. Despite in vitro susceptibility testing, which showed probable resistance of the isolated T. gallinae to metronidazole, five-day oral treatment of infected pigeons with 25 mg/kg metronidazole twice a day resulted in total eradication of trophozoites recovered in crop lavage of infected birds.
Researchers Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini Tabari (First researcher) , Blazej Pozniak (Second researcher) , Mohammad Reza Youssefi (Third researcher) , Mohammad Reza Roudaki Sarvandani (Fourth researcher) , Mario Giorgi (Fifth researcher)