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Effect of low dose nebulized morphine on respiratory function improvement in mustard gas-exposed patients: a double-blind crossover clinical trial study
Type Article
Dyspnea, Mustard gas, Morphine, Quality of life
Background: Mustard is one of the most destructive chemical gases used in chemical warfare. Several studies showed effectiveness of inhaled morphine as a secondary treatment for the improvement of dyspnea. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the efficacy of low dose inhaled morphine for respiratory function improvement in patients who were exposed to the mustard gas. Methods: This study was designed as a cross-over double-blinded clinical trial. Patients exposed to mustard gas were randomly assigned into two groups: 1) received 0.4 mg of morphine by inhalation and 2) received 5 ml of normal saline serum as a placebo in the same manner. After a washout period of one week, the first group received the placebo and the second group received morphine for 5 days. Spirometric indices, expiratory flow peak, exercise test, severity of dyspnea, and quality of life were evaluated as respiratory function parameters. Data analysis was done using SPSS software Version 16. Results: The mean maximum expiratory flow was significantly higher among cases who used morphine in comparison with the placebo group (p<0.05). Moreover, the severity of dyspnea, quality of life, and the frequency of coughing during the day were significantly improved among the recipients of morphine (p<0.05) while the spirometric indices and exercise tolerance tests were similar between the two groups (p>0.05), but the mean peak expiratory flow (PEFR) was significantly higher among the patients receiving morphine than the placebo patients (p<0.001). Conclusion: The use of inhaled morphine had a significant positive effect on the respiratory system of people exposed to mustard gas. We can use low doses of inhaled morphine to improve the respiratory function of these patients as a secondary therapy.
Researchers samad ghodrati (First researcher) , mohammad memarian (Second researcher) , Shohreh Alian Samakkhah (Third researcher) , masoud asadi khiavi (Fourth researcher) , aiyoub pezeshgi (Fifth researcher)