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Immunotoxic effects of metal-based nanoparticles in fish and bivalves
Type Article
Metal nanoparticles; immunotoxicity; fish; bivalves
There is a global research interest in metal nanoparticles (MNPs) due to their diverse applications, rapidly increasing use, and increased presence in the aquatic environment. Currently, most MNPs in the environment are at levels unlikely to cause overt toxicity. Sub-lethal effects that MNPs may induce, notable immunotoxicity, could however have significant health implications. Thus, deciphering the immunological interactions of MNPs with aquatic organisms constitutes a much-needed area of research. In this article, we critically assess the evidence for immunotoxic effects of MNPs in bivalves and fish, as key wildlife sentinels with widely differing ecological niches that are used as models in ecotoxicology. The first part of this review details the properties, fate, and fundamental physicochemical behavior of MNPs in the aquatic ecosystem. We then consider the toxicokinetics of MNP uptake, accumulation, and deposition in fish and bivalves. The main body of the review then focuses on immune reactions in response to MNPs exposure in bivalves and fish illustrating their immunotoxic potential. Finally, we identify major knowledge gaps in our current understanding of the implications of MNPs exposure for immunological functions and the associated health consequences for bivalves and fish, as well as the general lessons learned on the immunotoxic properties of the emerging class of nanoparticulate contaminants in fish and bivalves
Researchers Sara Rastgar (First researcher) , Rashid Alijani Ardeshir (Second researcher) , Helmut Segner (Third researcher) , Charles Tyler (Fourth researcher) , Willie Peijnenburg (Fifth researcher) , Youji Wang (Not in first six researchers) , Amir Parviz Salati (Not in first six researchers) , Abdolali Movahedinia (Not in first six researchers)